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Hypertension (high blood pressure): causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and prevention

 treatment and prevention Hypertension (high blood pressure
What is hypertension
High blood pressure or high blood pressure is a chronic disease characterized by high blood pressure levels in the arteries. It occurs when the maximum and minimum pressure values are equal to or exceed 140/90 mmHg (or 14 by 9). High blood pressure causes the heart to exert a greater effort than normal to cause the blood to be distributed correctly in the body. High blood pressure is one of the main risk factors for the occurrence of stroke, infarction, arterial aneurysm, and renal and cardiac failure. treatment and prevention Hypertension (high blood pressure

The problem is inherited from parents in 90% of cases, but there are several factors that influence blood pressure levels, such as the lifestyle of the individual.

Causes of high blood pressure
This disease is inherited from parents in 90% of cases, but there are several factors that influence blood pressure levels, including: treatment and prevention Hypertension (high blood pressure

Smoke
Consumption of alcoholic beverages
Obesity
Stress
High salt consumption
High Cholesterol Levels
Lack of physical activity;
In addition to these risk factors, it is known that the incidence of high blood pressure is higher in the black race, in diabetics, and increases with age.
 treatment and prevention Hypertension (high blood pressure

Symptoms of high blood pressure
The symptoms of hypertension usually appear only when the pressure goes up too much: chest pains, headache, dizziness, ringing in the ear, weakness, blurred vision and nosebleeds can occur.
 treatment and prevention Hypertension (high blood pressure

Treatment
High blood pressure has no cure, but it has treatment and can be controlled. Only the doctor can determine the best method for each patient.

The Unified Health System (SUS) offers free medication at the Basic Health Units (UBS) and the Popular Pharmacy program. To remove the drugs, simply present a photo ID, CPF and prescription within the validity period, which is 120 days. The prescription can be issued either by a SUS professional or by a doctor who attends in hospitals or private clinics.

Medications offered free of charge in SUS for hypertension
 treatment and prevention Hypertension (high blood pressure
Diagnosis
Measuring blood pressure regularly is the only way to diagnose hypertension. People over 20 years of age should measure the pressure at least once a year. If there are cases of people with high blood pressure in the family, it should be measured at least twice a year.
 treatment and prevention Hypertension (high blood pressure

Prevention
In addition to the medications available today, it is imperative to adopt a healthy lifestyle:

Maintain adequate weight, if necessary, by changing eating habits;
Do not abuse the salt, using other seasonings that emphasize the taste of food;
Practice regular physical activity;
Enjoy leisure time;
Quit smoking;
Moderate alcohol consumption;
Avoid fatty foods;
Control diabetes.
High blood pressure in pregnancy
Hypertensive changes in pregnancy are associated with severe fetal and maternal complications and an increased risk of maternal and perinatal mortality. In developing countries, gestational hypertension is the main cause of maternal mortality, and is responsible for a large number of hospitalizations in intensive care centers.
 treatment and prevention Hypertension (high blood pressure
Prevention
In women with high blood pressure, pre-conception assessment allows the exclusion of secondary hypertension, blood pressure measurement, discussion of the risks of pre-eclampsia and guidelines on the need for medication changes in the first trimester of pregnancy.

Women with hypertension within the blood pressure goal and with regular follow-up usually show a favorable outcome. On the other hand, women with unsatisfactory blood pressure control in the first trimester of pregnancy have a considerably higher risk of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality (JAMES; NELSON-PIERCY et al., 2004).
 treatment and prevention Hypertension (high blood pressure
Treatment
The treatment of mild high blood pressure in the pregnant woman should be focused on non-pharmacological measures, whereas in the moderate and severe forms one can choose the usual treatment recommended for each specific clinical condition.

Regardless of the etiology of arterial hypertension during pregnancy, it is fundamental that the health team is attentive to the pressure control and evaluate the possibility of referral to the prenatal service of high risk.
 treatment and prevention Hypertension (high blood pressure
Health professionals
Specialized Attention
Care for the individual with high blood pressure, with more complex procedures and exams to complications from this disease, is performed within the medium and high complexity of SUS. These individuals should be referred to points of attention of equivalent technological density and with health teams prepared for the approach.

Diagnostic and therapeutic methods for which there is evidence of efficacy and safety are offered by the SUS, through organization of the network by the local manager and funding through the medium and high complexity ceiling, and are available in the Management System of the Table of Procedures, Medications and SUS Procedures and OPM (SIGTAP).
 treatment and prevention Hypertension (high blood pressure
Therapeutic Protocols and Guidelines
In addition, complications from high blood pressure, such as acute myocardial infarction and cerebral vascular accident, have clinical protocols and therapeutic guidelines (PCDT), which are documents that establish criteria for the diagnosis of the disease or health problem; the recommended treatment, with medicines and other appropriate products, when appropriate; the recommended dosages; the mechanisms of clinical control; and the monitoring and verification of therapeutic results, to be followed by SUS managers. These are based on scientific evidence and take into account criteria of effectiveness, safety, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the recommended technologies.

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